Vitamin D and COVID-19 Studies 2021
Vitamin D plays an important role in most diseases, including infectious disease. Since then, mounting evidence reveals that higher vitamin D levels reduce rates of positive tests, hospitalizations and mortality related to this infection.
Vitamin D3 Reduces ICU Admissions and Mortality
The study included 930 patients, 551 of whom received vitamin D3 — 532 micrograms on the first day of admission followed by 266 mcg on days 3, 7, 15 and 30. The remaining 379 patients served as controls.
All were given standard of care, which included hydroxychloroquine and an antibiotic (or two antibiotics in cases where bacterial infections were diagnosed), plus a steroid in cases involving pulmonary inflammation and/or cytokine storm. As reported by the authors:
“ICU assistance was required by 110 (11.8%) participants. Out of 551 patients treated with calcifediol at admission, 30 (5.4%) required ICU, compared to 80 out of 379 controls (21.1%).
Logistic regression of calcifediol treatment on ICU admission, adjusted by age, gender, linearized 25(OH)D levels at baseline, and comorbidities showed that treated patients had a reduced risk to require ICU (RR 0.18).
Baseline 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with the risk of ICU admission (RR 0.53). Overall mortality was 10%. In the Intention-to-treat analysis, 36 (6.5%) out of 551 patients treated with calcifediol at admission died compared to 57 patients (15%) out of 379 controls.
Adjusted results showed a reduced mortality for more of 60%. Higher baseline 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with decreased mortality (RR 0.40).
Age and obesity were also predictors of mortality. Interpretation: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, calcifediol treatment at the time of hospitalization significantly reduced ICU admission and mortality.”
Renewed Calls for Vitamin D RecommendationsIn response to the Spanish findings, British MP David Davis tweeted that "The findings of this large and well conducted study should result in this therapy being administered to every COVID patient in every hospital in the temperate latitudes,” adding that:
Many others are also calling for official vitamin D recommendations to be issued by their governments. Among them, Emer Higgins, a member of the Irish political party Fine Gael, who called on the Irish health minister, Stephen Donnelly, to include vitamin D supplementation in its “Living with COVID-19” strategy, slated for launch at the end of February 2021.
Low Vitamin D Linked to COVID-19 Outbreaks and Severity
“The country surge date corresponds to the time when its sun UV daily dose drops below ≈ 34% of that of 0° latitude. Introducing reported seasonal blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration variation into the reported link between acute respiratory tract infection risk and 25(OH)D concentration quantitatively explains the surge dynamics ...
The date of the surge is an intrapopulation observation and has the benefit of being triggered only by a parameter globally affecting the population, i.e. decreases in the sun UV daily dose.
The results indicate that a low 25(OH)D concentration is a contributing factor to COVID-19 severity, which, combined with previous studies, provides a convincing set of evidence.”
Vitamin D Recommended Dosage for COVID-19
- Vitamin D3 — 1000–3000 IU/day. Note RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) is 800–1000 IU/day. The safe upper-dose daily limit is likely < 4000 IU/day. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 and from dying from the disease. Vitamin D supplementation may therefore prove to be an effective and cheap intervention to lessen the impact of this disease, particularly in vulnerable populations, i.e. the elderly, those of color and obese. (Amazon)
- Vitamin C - 1,000 mg BID (twice daily) (Amazon)
- Quercetin 250 mg daily. It is likely that vitamin C and quercetin have synergistic prophylactic benefit. Quercetin should be used with caution in patients with hypothyroidism and TSH levels should be monitored. (Amazon > 1 capsule daily)
- Melatonin: 6 mg before bedtime (causes drowsiness).
- Zinc: 50 mg/day (elemental zinc). Zinc lozenges are preferred. (Amazon)
- Ivermectin for prophylaxis in high-risk individuals (> 60 years with co-morbidities, morbid obesity, long term care facilities, etc). 0.2 mg/kg Day 1, Day 3 and then followed by biweekly dosing (one dose every two weeks). (also see ClinTrials.gov NCT04425850). NB. Ivermectin has a number of potentially serious drug-drug interactions. Please check for potential drug interaction at Ivermectin Drug Interactions - Drugs.com. The most important drug interactions occur with cyclosporin, tacrolimus, anti-retroviral drugs, and certain anti-fungal drugs.
- Vitamin D3 — 4000 IU/day. (Amazon)
- Vitamin C - 2,000 mg BID (twice daily) (Amazon)
- Quercetin 250 mg twice a day. (Amazon)
- Melatonin: 10 mg before bedtime (causes drowsiness). (Amazon)
- Zinc: 100 mg/day. Zinc lozenges are preferred. (Amazon)
- Ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg per dose. One dose daily - minimum 2 days, maximum 5 days.
- FLCCC also recommend monitoring your oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter and to go to
the hospital if you get below 94%.
- Aspirin 325 m/day unless contraindicated.
High Dosage Vitamin D COVID-19 Studies
Vitamin D and COVID vaccine
COVID and Vitamin D - CDC
Vitamin D and COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines from NIHAccording to the NIH recommendation (last updated July 17, 2020):
There are insufficient data to recommend either for or against the use of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19.