Quercetin, Zinc, Vitamin C and Vitamin D3: Can They help Against Coronavirus? Updated November 2021

Good, valuable and unbiased articles are hard to come by. Before you continue to read this rather long article, let's start with the end in mind and begin with the conclusion that you may have been told. Most of the studies on supplements are small and are of low quality? We shall wait for bigger and better quality evidence before we can make formal recommendations?

Science requires questioning and testing. The world does not exist in a 'black or white' manner and most of the time, things do fall into the 'gray' area. Medical science is dynamic and evidence development is constantly in a continuous work-in-progress mode. If a supplement has been shown to work in a small study, would you wait for a bigger study or should you just take it after considering the benefit and risk ratio; especially if the supplement is actually a nutrient that your body needs? Do your own research and the final decision should be yours, after a consultation with your trusted medical professional of course.

COVID-19 kills some people and spares others. How do you ensure that you are on the right side of the statistics? There are just too many self-proclaimed medical experts recommending all kinds of supplements for COVID-19 out there.  On one side are experts telling you that supplements don't work and you should avoid them and just rely on wholesome foods. On the other, are experts telling you to take all kinds of supplements that will help protect you against COVID-19. Do they actually work? Some supplements do have evidence and some don't. 

This guide is based on various references to scientific literature and hopefully, can help you make sense of the options and to separate the facts from fiction.

cytokine storm and COVID-19
Image credit: ClevelandClinic

As of December 2021, there are more than 70 types of supplements that are being tested for COVID-19. You can review the details of these trials on clinicaltrials.gov. Vitamin D remains the most tested vitamin with the most evidence followed by zinc and vitamin C, for COVID-19.

The medical community themselves are battling over supplements on whether they should be used to treat and prevent COVID-19. On one side are experts telling you that supplements don't work and you should avoid them and just rely on wholesome foods. On the other, are experts telling you to take all kinds of supplements that will help protect you against COVID-19. Do they actually work? 

How do you deal with different expert groups dishing out conflicting guides? A common issue is that certain groups have pre-defined narrative that they would like to support. Therefore, only studies that support that pre-defined narrative are picked and cited as references. This is what we call as 'cherry-picking'. Cherry picking will naturally lead to a 'biased' decision. In order to avoid that, scientific information needs to be analyzed in a comprehensive, updated and non-biased manner in order to come up with the best 'evidence-based' decision.

The lung injury in COVID-19 patients is associated with ROS (reactive oxygen species) released by white cells in the blood, and thus the use of antioxidants is necessary for the management of COVID-19.

The largest observational study on self-reported dietary supplement use and SARS-CoV-2 infection found that, among 372,720 people in the U.K. who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, those who used probiotics, fish oil, multivitamins, or vitamin D had a 14%, 12%, 13%, or 9% lower risk of infection, respectively, compared to those who did not. Similar findings were observed among 45,757 people in the U.S. and 27,373 people in Sweden, although only in the U.K. were the reductions driven by benefits only among women. There was no association between zinc, vitamin C or garlic supplementation and COVID-19 risk (Louca, medRxiv preprint, 2020). While interesting, this is a non peer-reviewed article and these results can not be taken as proving cause-and-effect.

Do take note that for optimal effectiveness, each supplement should not be considered on their own merit as most of the supplements are given as part of a combination protocol. Further, each nutrient will also have influence on another nutrient.  To illustrate this multi-approach thinking, vitamin K2 and magnesium are synergistic with vitamin D and act as co-nutrients that can improve your vitamin D level. On the other hand, vitamin C and zinc might cause copper deficiency, if given at the same time.

Note: This is a highly dynamic topic; therefore, we will be updating this article as new information emerges. 

Here are the handful of supplements under the most intense study for effectiveness against the coronavirus:

1. Quercetin and COVID-19

In 2003, Quercetin was found to provide broad-spectrum protection against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1 and not the current SARS-CoV-2) in the aftermath of the SARS epidemic that broke out across 26 countries in 2003 (Source). 
Quercetin

Quercetin acts as a zinc ionophore (PubMed 2014), the same mechanism of action that hydroxychloroquine has via helping zinc pass the cell wall where it might halt viral replication.

This zinc ionophore activity of quercetin facilitates the transport of zinc across the cell membrane. It is known that zinc will slow down the replication of coronavirus through inhibition of enzyme RNA polymerase (PubMed 2010). The COVID-19 is an RNA (RiboNucleicAcid) virus and requires the RNA polymerase to replicate. Do take note that the study publication was a 2010 publication and is referring to a different coronavirus as compared to the latest coronavirus (COVID-19); though both are from the same family of coronaviruses.

Elderberry, red onions, white onions and cranberries are the richest sources of quercetin. It is a flavonoid and antioxidant that may help to reduce inflammatory cytokines, infections, allergies and anti-blood clot property. Research has found that quercetin may be particularly beneficial for viral respiratory infections.
 
Check out the evidence tracker on quercetin and COVID-19 from c19quercetin.com (constantly updated).

Quercetin, Zinc, Vitamin C and Vitamin D (FLCCC I-MASK+ Protocol)

Incidentally, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and the bioflavonoid quercetin (originally labeled vitamin P) were both discovered by the same scientist — Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi. Quercetin and vitamin C also act as an antiviral drug, effectively inactivating viruses. 

There is evidence that vitamin C and quercetin co-administration exerts a synergistic antiviral action due to overlapping antiviral and immunomodulatory properties and the capacity of ascorbate to recycle quercetin, increasing its efficacy.

For updated prevention and early outpatient protocol  for COVID-19 positive, please check out FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol.


Quercetin, Zinc, Bromelain and Vitamin C

A case series of 22 patients, published in Medrxiv revealed that quercetin 800 mg once daily with bromelain 165 mg, in addition to zinc acetate 50 mg and vitamin C 1 g supplements are safe with COVID-19 patients who were on multiple therapies including antivirals and antibacterial medications. The effectiveness of quercetin, bromelain, zinc and ascorbic acid combination was not clear in this study, because of lacking placebo or comparable group.

Quercetin works best when taken with vitamin C and Bromelain, as vitamin C helps activate it and bromelain helps with the absorption. In this study (PubMed), Bromelain also has anti-viral property against COVID-19 virus and anti-clotting property, and therefore may be useful against COVID-19.




The AAPS recommends the following outpatient treatment protocol for COVID-19:
  • Quercetin oral 500 mg twice a day.
  • Vitamin C 3000 mg
  • Vitamin D3 5000 IU
  • Zinc sulphate 220 mg
Please take note the above dosages are relatively high and is meant for 'treatment'. If you wish to continue taking these nutrients for health maintenance, you'll need to go back to the usual 'RDA or RDI' dosages after you recover.

Is quercetin similar to hydroxychloroquine? Some physicians are recommending quercetin to reduce viral illnesses because quercetin acts as a zinc ionophore to improve zinc uptake into cells. It is much less potent than HCQ (hydroxychloroquine) as a zinc transporter, and it does not reach high concentrations in lung cells that HCQ does. Quercetin may help reduce risk of viral illness if you are basically healthy. But it is not potent enough to replace HCQ for treatment of COVID once you have symptoms, and it does not adequately get into lung tissue unless you take massive doses (3-5 grams a day), which cause significant GI (gastrointestinal) side effects such as diarrhea.

That said, if you simply cannot get hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin, quercetin is a viable stand-in. Quercetin works best when taken with vitamin C and Bromelain, as vitamin C helps activate it and bromelain helps with the absorption. 

Best Quercetin Zinc Supplement:
Related: Best Quercetin Supplement 2021

2. Vitamin D and COVID-19

Based on several publications and studies, vitamin D seems to be the “most promising” supplement for COVID-19 protection. Many studies have showed the link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19. 

A meta-analysis of 43 vitamin D observational studies (Petrelli, March 2021) points to effectiveness against COVID-19. Two studies in France (C Annweiler, Nov 2020; G Annweiler, Nov 2020), one in India (A Rastogi, Nov 2020) and one in Spain (M Castillo, Oct 2020) showed that Vitamin D supplementation seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and the inflammatory markers' levels among the COVID-19 infected patients, leading to a better prognosis and increased survival.

In a study from Nature (Sci Rep, May 2021) to investigate the effects of daily high-dose supplementation (60,000 IUs) of vitamin D — for eight to 10 days, in addition to standard therapy, for COVID-19 patients deficient in vitamin D; Vitamin D levels increased significantly in the vitamin D group — from 16 ng/ml to 89 ng/ml — while inflammatory markers significantly decreased, without any side effects.

The largest observational study to date, looked at data for 191,779 American patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March and June 2020 and had had their vitamin D tested sometime in the preceding 12 months.

Of those with a vitamin D level below 20 ng/ml (deficiency), 12.5% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared to 8.1% of those who had a vitamin D level between 30 and 34 ng/ml (adequacy) and 5.9% of those who had an optimal vitamin D level of 55 ng/ml or higher.

Data from 14 observational studies — suggest that vitamin D blood levels are negatively correlated with the incidence and/or severity of COVID-19; meaning if your vitamin D level is high, your risk for COVID-19 is low and vice versa.

A study published in November 2020 from Singapore (CW Tan, Nutrition 2020), found that those who were started on a daily oral dose of vitamin D3 (1,000 IU), magnesium (150 mg) and vitamin B12 (500 mcg) within the first day of hospitalisation and continued up to 14 days were significantly less likely to require oxygen therapy and further intensive care.

According to the statement released on 2 October by the U.S. president’s physician said that in addition to the antibodies, Trump “has been taking zinc, vitamin D, famotidine, melatonin and a daily aspirin.”

Another study, published in JAMA (JAMA Netw Open - Sep 2020) found that persons who are likely to have deficient vitamin D levels at the time of COVID-19 testing were at substantially higher risk of testing positive for COVID-19 than were persons who were likely to have sufficient levels.

The same team above, has also published a preprint article: A study at the University of Chicago of over 4,000 patients that found that untreated vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk for COVID-19 infection.

study in 2020 of 20 European countries found a link between low levels of vitamin D and higher percentages of COVID-19 cases and mortality. Separately, more than 80% of 200 people hospitalized for COVID-19 in Spain were found to be deficient in vitamin D, according to a study published in October in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Association of American Physicians and Surgeons' Home-based Guide

According to the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons’ home-based guide to treating COVID-19, vitamin D, C and zinc are necessary.

Some doctors also recommend adding a B complex vitamin. Zinc is critical. It helps block the virus from multiplying. Hydroxychloroquine is the carrier taking zinc INTO the cells to do its job.

Co-Nutrients Reduce Your Vitamin D Requirement

You can minimize your vitamin D requirement by making sure you’re also getting enough magnesium. Magnesium is required for the conversion of vitamin D into its active form and research has confirmed higher magnesium intake helps reduce your risk of vitamin D deficiency by activating more of it. 

Vitamin K2 is another important cofactor, and taking both magnesium and vitamin K2 can lower your vitamin D requirement.

Cod liver oil (1,360 IU per tablespoon), eggs (44 IU per egg), along with fortified foods including milk and some cereals are excellent sources. 

Do take note that you can also get good amounts of vitamins C and D, zinc and other essential vitamins and minerals from a basic multivitamin. If you are taking a multivitamin, your D-vitamin needs may be covered, but be careful not to let the total exceed 4,000 IU or 100 mcg.

To maintain healthy levels, only 400 to 800 IU (15 to 20 mcg) of vitamin D is required daily, but, to boost low levels, higher doses, such as 2,000 IU daily, are used and are generally safe on a short term basis.

A group of researchers from the US, UK, Netherlands and New Zealand, said that the RDA of vitamin D should be increased to 2,000 IU and vitamin C to 200 mg in their review published in Nutrients 2020.

Vitamin D3 supplements appear to be more effective at raising vitamin D levels than D2 supplements. One should also take vitamin K2 together with D3 as vitamin K2 works synergistically with vitamin D3. 


3. Vitamin C and COVID-19 

A review, published December 7, 2020, in the journal Nutrients, recommended the use of vitamin C as an additional therapy for respiratory infections, sepsis and COVID-19.

In December 16, 2020, Rob Verkerk, Ph.D., founder and scientific director of the Alliance for Natural Health, announced the launch of an international vitamin C campaign in response to the Nutrients review, which "puts all the arguments and science in one, neat place."


Interestingly, many of the risk factors for COVID-19 overlap with those for vitamin C deficiency. Certain sub-groups (male, African American, older, those suffering with co-morbidities of diabetes, hypertension, COPD), all at higher risk of severe COVID-19, have also been shown to have lower serum vitamin C levels . Average plasma vitamin C levels are generally lower in men than women, even with comparative intakes of vitamin C, which has been attributed to their higher body weight . 

In the first RCT (Randomised Controlled Trial) to test the value of vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients, 56 ventilated patients in Wuhan, China, were treated with a placebo (sterile water) or intravenous vitamin C at a dose of 24 g/day for 7 days. The trial was originally designed for 140 subjects and was thus underpowered, with only 54 patients due to a lack of new admissions. The authors concluded that HDIVC (high dose intravenous Vitamin C) might show a potential signal of benefit for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

The largest registered trial is the Lessening Organ Dysfunction with Vitamin C-COVID (LOVIT-COVID) trial in Canada, which is recruiting 800 patients who are randomly assigned to vitamin C (intravenous, 50 mg/kg every 6 h) or a placebo for 96 h, i.e., equivalent to 15 g/day for a 75 kg person (NCT04401150). 

This protocol has also been added as a vitamin C arm in the Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (REMAP-CAP; NCT02735707). The study design provides further rationale for the use of vitamin C in COVID-19 patients . 

There is also a high-dose (10 g/day) vitamin C intervention study in 500 adults is in progress in Palermo, Italy (NCT04323514).

In the UK, the Chelsea and Westminster hospital ICU, where adult ICU patients were administered 1 g of intravenous vitamin C every 12 h together with anticoagulants , has reported 29% mortality , compared to the average 41% reported by the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) for all UK ICUs . While the authors have stated that the addition of an antioxidant in the form of vitamin C could have contributed to the lower mortality rate, it should be noted that other clinical factors and procedures could also account for the improved mortality and that the Chelsea and Westminster ICU serves a more affluent sector of the population with less deprivation on the basis of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Deprivation, while a risk factor for COVID-19 mortality, is also a predictor of low vitamin C status. In the UK, an estimated 25% of men and 16% of women in the low-income/materially deprived population are deficient in vitamin C > 11 µmol/L .

The Frontline COVID-19 Critical Care Expert Group (FLCCC), a group of emergency medicine experts, have reported that, with the combined use of 6 g/day intravenous vitamin C (1.5 g every 6 h), plus steroids and anticoagulants, mortality was 5% in two ICUs in the US (United Memorial Hospital in Houston, Texas, and Norfolk General Hospital in Norfolk, Virginia), the lowest mortality rates in their respective counties .

At the Cleveland Clinic, researchers are enrolling people into a study to see if vitamin C or zinc — or a combination of the two — can reduce the duration of COVID-19 symptoms. Patients will be given the supplements after they have tested positive for COVID-19.

As of November 2021, more than 50 studies have been launched to investigate the benefits of vitamin C against COVID-19. There are many such studies underway and you can review the status of these trials on clinicaltrials.gov

Word of Caution - The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C is 75 to 120 milligrams per day. Taking large doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a regular basis lowers your level of copper, so if you are already deficient in copper and take high doses of vitamin C, you can compromise your immune system.

While generally considered safe even in high doses, way too much vitamin C — anything above 2,000 milligrams daily—can cause headaches, insomnia, gastric discomfort, diarrhea, heartburn, and other issues.

Temporarily taking megadoses of vitamin C supplements to combat a case of the cold or flu is likely not going to cause a problem. 

Many vitamin C supplements that are above the US RDA are sold in the market. It’s important to seek a physician’s advice if you intend to take high dose vitamin C on a long term basis. High doses of vitamin C (over 500 mg per day) over the long-term may increase the risk of cataracts. High-dose vitamin C can also reduce the effectiveness of certain medications and interfere with certain blood tests.

To be on the safe side, you may also request for your kidney functions to be monitored.

For long-term, daily use, your best bet is to eat a diet that is full of high quality organic vegetables and fruits that are minimally processed. Not only will you get vitamin C, but you will get all the other accessory nutrients and micronutrients that are needed to optimize it.

That said, there are also several reasons to consider taking supplemental vitamin C. First, your body cannot make it. Second, most people do not get sufficient amounts from their diet and, third, your body’s requirement for vitamin C can increase 10-fold whenever your immune system is challenged by an infection, disease or physical trauma.

Related: Best Vitamin C Supplements


4. Zinc and COVID-19

Foods that are high in zinc include oysters, crab, lobster, mussels, red meat, and poultry. Cereals are often fortified with zinc. Most multivitamin and nutritional supplements contain zinc.

Zinc has been shown in a lab study to inhibit regular coronavirus (not the current SARS-CoV-2) in a 2010 publication.

As of November 2021, there are more than 40 studies that have been launched to investigate the benefits of Zinc against COVID-19. You can review the status of these trials on clinicaltrials.gov.

A retrospective observational study (Carlucci P, Sep 2020) compared zinc supplementation to no zinc supplementation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin from March 2 to April 5, 2020. A total of 932 patients were included in this analysis; 411 patients received zinc, and 521 did not. After adjusting for the time at which zinc sulphate was added to the protocol, an increased frequency of being discharged home and reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice among patients who did not require ICU level of care remained significant. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that zinc sulphate may play a role in therapeutic management for COVID-19.

A study in Spain (Gonzalez, The Lancet preprint, Oct 2020) among people hospitalised with COVID-19 found that having very low blood levels of zinc was associated with more severe disease and higher mortality rates.

Taking zinc long term is typically safe for healthy adults, as long as the daily dose is under the set upper limit of 40 mg of elemental zinc (PubMed).

Be aware that typical daily doses of zinc provided by zinc lozenges generally exceed tolerable upper limits for zinc, and for this reason, they should not be used for longer than about a week. 

Excessive doses may interfere with copper absorption, which could negatively affect your immune system as it can cause copper deficiencies, blood disorders, impair the absorption of antibiotics and potentially permanent nerve damage or loss of smell.

The ideal dose for prevention while the COVID-19 risk is high is 40-100 mg/d, a portion of which comes from zinc lozenges to spread the zinc through the tissues of the nose, mouth and throat. It should be accompanied by at least 1 mg copper from food and supplements for every 15 mg zinc.

Do take note that you should keep the dosage back to within 40 mg/d once the exposure risk is back to normal.

Zinc Sulphate is also part of Dr. Vladimir Zelenko anti-coronavirus experimental protocol. Please take note that the protocol is experimental and has not been 100% proven. Do discuss with your doctor before taking the medication as per the protocol. You can check out his publication in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Based on the statement released on 2 October by the U.S. president’s physician, zinc is also part of the treatment given to the US President. According to the president's physician, "Trump has been taking zinc, vitamin D, famotidine, melatonin and a daily aspirin.”

Editor's note: Hydroxychloroquine is a zinc ionophore. If increased intracellular Zn ion concentration is required to disrupt viral replication, perhaps using multiple zinc ionophores would increase that concentration thus decreasing viral replication further. Other OTC (over the counter) zinc ionophores include quercetin (QCT) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG – green tea extract).

Note on Zinc supplements: How much zinc you should take per day depends on the type and forms of zinc, as each supplement contains a different amount of 'elemental zinc'. The percentage of elemental zinc varies by form. 

For example, approximately 23% of zinc sulfate consists of elemental zinc; thus, 220 mg of zinc sulfate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc (NIH). Zinc picolinate (20% of elemental zinc), zinc ascorbate (15%), zinc chloride (48%), zinc carbonate (52%), zinc citrate (31%), zinc bisglycinate (25%) (Ref) and zinc gluconate (14%) and zinc oxide (80%) (Ref).

The AAPS (Association of American Physicians and Surgeons) recommends zinc sulfate, gluconate or citrate. These forms are available in pharmacies, health food stores, and sold online. Zinc sulfate 220 mg provides 50 mg elemental zinc, the recommended anti-viral dose. Zinc in the form of zinc picolinate form is not recommended following reports of liver damage and tumors from studies about 20 years ago. Following these reports, the German Commission E that regulates supplements used in medical practice in Germany banned this form of zinc.


5. Melatonin and COVID-19

The potential utility of melatonin in treating COVID patients has not gone unnoticed, with a PubMed search combining melatonin and COVID producing more than 50 citations.

You may know about melatonin as a supplement that can support your healthy sleep cycle. Melatonin is released by the brain’s pineal gland in response to nighttime darkness and is a key regulator of circadian synchrony.

Assisting sleep and rest is already an immune system-supporting benefit, but melatonin has more to offer. It is a powerful antioxidant that supports your immune health, brain, eyes, digestion, and more. It may even be helpful when it comes to COVID-19.

Melatonin is a hormone synthesized in your pineal gland and many other organs. While it is most well-known as a natural sleep regulator, it also has many other important functions. For example, melatonin is a potent antioxidant (Antioxidants, 2020) with the rare ability to enter your mitochondria, where it helps “prevent mitochondrial impairment, energy failure and apoptosis of mitochondria damaged by oxidation.” It also helps recharge glutathione and glutathione deficiency has been linked to COVID-19 severity.

Production of melatonin diminishes with age, contributing to immune dysfunction and increasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and infection susceptibility (Ref). In addition, infectious viruses can suppress melatonin production, disrupting circadian controls and impairing immune function (Ref).

As discussed in a review (Cardinali et al. 2020), melatonin might counteract the consequences of COVID-19 via salutary effects on the sleep/wake cycle and more generally on chronobiology, as well as through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. 

Based on melatonin’s therapeutic potential and well-established safety profile, it has been suggested those at higher risk for severe illness and complications from viral respiratory infection, including the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions, may benefit most from regular use of 3–10 mg melatonin at bedtime (Ref). 

Fluvoxamine (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) might also exert beneficial effects in COVID patients through its well-characterized ability to substantially increase (~ 2–3-fold) nighttime plasma levels of melatonin. This increase appears to result from fluvoxamine’s inhibition of the melatonin-metabolizing liver enzymes (von Bahr et al. 2000).

Data from Cleveland Clinic supports the use of melatonin. Here, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Cleveland Clinic’s COVID-19 registry using an artificial intelligence platform designed to identify drugs that may be repurposed.

"Patients who used melatonin as a supplement had, on average, a 28% lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Blacks who used melatonin were 52% less likely to test positive for the virus."

Some researchers have suggested high doses of melatonin, ranging from 50 to 200 mg twice daily, might help treat patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory illness (Ref).

In a small Philippine case series study of 10 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, high dose melatonin (hdM) was given in addition (adjuvant) to standard therapy. According to the authors:

"High dose melatonin may have a beneficial role in patients treated for COVID19 pneumonia, in terms of shorter time to clinical improvement, less need for MV, shorter hospital stay, and possibly lower mortality."

Another study of patients tested for COVID-19 found that those who reported taking melatonin were less likely to test positive, but this does not prove that taking melatonin supplements can prevent COVID-19 (Jehi, Chest 2020).

Melatonin supplementation may reduce the risk of acute viral respiratory infections, help mitigate some chronic health problems that increase infection vulnerability, and protect against neurological and cardiovascular complications of viral respiratory infections (Reiter et al. 2020). 

In an observational study that followed 11,672 individuals, melatonin use was associated with a reduced risk of testing positive for a common, highly infectious respiratory virus (Ref).

Another study looked at data from 791 patients intubated for respiratory support during an outbreak of a severe acute viral respiratory illness and 2,981 patients needing the same level of respiratory support for other reasons. The use of melatonin, most often for sleep issues, during the intubation period was associated with significantly improved outcomes in both groups and increased the likelihood of survival in virus-infected patients who required mechanical ventilation (Ref).

As of April 2021, 8 studies are currently underway to investigate the benefits of melatonin against COVID-19. Ultimately, the results of the above trials will offer more definitive evidence.

If you take a melatonin supplement, be careful: Too much can cause daytime sleepiness. There is no federal RDA nor any formal advice on supplement dose ranges. Based on an on-going Spanish study, a 2 mg daily dose protocol is being investigated for prevention of COVID-19. Do take note that the dosage for 'prevention' and 'treatment' is different, For prevention or maintenance, a lower dosage is normally recommended whereas a 'treatment' or 'therapeutic' dosage is normally higher.

For prevention, the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Working Group, FLCCC recommends:
  • Melatonin: 6 mg before bedtime (causes drowsiness).
Related: Nature's Bounty Melatonin 5 mg > One tablet before bedtime (Amazon)

Conclusion

Do take note that the dosages for micronutrients or vitamins are higher for treatment as opposed to maintenance or preventive. This is probably due to higher demand of the body or the deficiency of the micronutrients are worse during a complicated viral infection. However, for prevention or maintenance, the dosages for most of the micronutrients are much lower.

The risk for hospitalisations, ventilation, and death from COVID-19 are all elevated in people with preexisting conditions, especially high blood pressure and diabetes. Take steps to control hypertension and blood sugar fluctuations with diabetes, as these conditions are associated with more severe disease if infected. This may also help you maintain a healthy weight, which is important because obesity has been associated with an increased risk of requiring intubation or dying among people hospitalized with COVID-19, particularly those under 65 years of age. Risk was 60% greater among those with severe obesity (BMI > 34.9 kg/m2) compared to patients of normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) (Anderson, Annals Int Med 2020).

Viral infections like the COVID-19 also put added stress on your body, which can affect your blood pressure, heart rate, and overall heart function. That can raise your probability of having a heart attack or stroke. Therefore, make sure your blood pressure is well controlled during this pandemic.

Aside from supplements, there are other ways that may help improve immune response and to prevent you from catching the coronavirus.
  • Wear protective face mask. This is to protect not only yourself but others.
  • Abundant evidence suggests that eating whole in fruits, vegetables and whole grains—all rich in networks of naturally occurring antioxidants and their helper molecules—provides protection against free radicals.
  • Getting Enough Sleep
  • Avoid sugar, red meat and processed foods.
  • Don't smoke.
  • Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently, using hand sanitizer and cooking meats thoroughly.
  • Try to minimize stress.
  • Drink enough water to keep your body hydrated.
  • Avoid excess alcohol.
  • Avoid crowded areas.
  • Regular physical activity (outdoor activities may not be allowed in countries with 'lock-down'). Those with active lifestyle has lower risk if hospitalised as compared to those with sedentary lifestyle (Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 2021)
  • Consult your nearest local healthcare provider if you have any doubt.

More COVID-19 related topics > COVID-19


Be aware that most of the supplement dosages are above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and therefore such dosages should not be maintained on a long term basis. 

Disclaimer: The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of third party sites. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Supplements you can purchase from Amazon for COVID-19 prevention. Inspired by the FLCCC prevention protocol >
 

Comments

Popular Posts